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Elton John 

+ {Bluesology}

The one-time Liberace of the 70s (in glam showman terms at least), this super-songwriting machine subsequently adapted himself to the slickness of AOR music. ELTON JOHN has covered more stylistic bases than most in his long career, and with more professional polish than his contemporaries. While the chameleon-like piano thumper’s early-to-mid-70s purple period turned up songs (alongside lyricist Bernie Taupin) as ingratiatingly tenacious as `Your Song’, `Rocket Man’, `Candle In The Wind’, `Goodbye Yellow Brick Road’, `Philadelphia Freedom’ and `Don’t Let The Sun Go Down On Me’, the fact that he continued re-inventing himself in the 80s and 90s, surely stands him out as England’s biggest musical export. Not without the odd piece of controversy, his diva antics at airport terminals, thrifty expenditure on flights of romanticism and his gay marriage, have kept the “rocket man” in high profile.
Born Reginald Kenneth Dwight, 25th March 1947, Pinner, Middlesex in England, he was something of a child protégé having learned piano; he duly attained a scholarship from the Royal Academy Of Music at the age of eleven. In the early 60s, young Reg joined BLUESOLOGY, and by 1965 had written his first 45, `Come Back, Baby’; the R&B combo subsequently toured Britain as back-up to American acts such as MAJOR LANCE, The Blue Belles (with PATTI LaBELLE), et al. Late in ‘66, BLUESOLOGY were joined by five others including singer LONG JOHN BALDRY, who virtually took over show, much to the dislike of Reg.
In 1967, he left the group and auditioned for Liberty Records through an ad. After failure to convince the label he was the worthy candidate, Reg found pen-pal lyricist Bernie Taupin (b.22 May’50, Lincolnshire). One of the first songs they wrote (`Lord You Made The Night Too Long’) was lifted as a LONG JOHN BALDRY B-side for his UK No.1 `Let The Heartaches Begin’. Finally meeting Taupin after six months, Dwight was encouraged to change his nom de plume to ELTON JOHN, taking the names from BLUESOLOGY members Elton Dean and LONG JOHN BALDRY.
1968 was a breakthrough year for Elton and Bernie as both joined the Dick James Music Publishing stable (later D.J.M. Records), earning the rather un-London wage packet of around £10 a week. With former Bluesology guitarist Caleb Quaye on production, the solo ELTON JOHN released his debut solo single, `I’ve Been Loving You Too Long’ for Philips, while to make ends meet further they wrote for the industry. Early in ‘69, EJ garnered needed airplay for his follow-up `Lady Samantha’, but when this failed he tried to join KING CRIMSON (and some say GENTLE GIANT), but to no avail. Elton and Bernie duly wrote a number for the Eurovision Song Contest, `I Can’t Go On Living Without You’, a rather downbeat cue which was heard but rejected by LULU who opted for her eventual winner, `Boom Bang A Bang’.
Signed to the aforementioned D.J.M., JOHN flopped with both his next 45, `It’s Me That You Need’ and its parent album, EMPTY SKY (1969) {*5}. A slow-burner to the point it never quite set the music industry alight, it contained a handful of decent tunes including the singles, but kicking off with an 8-minute title track was a tad ambitious.
To make ends meet, the piano-player played on The HOLLIES `He Ain’t Heavy’ session, and worked for budget labels Pickwick and Music For Pleasure on some Top Of The Pops covers sets. In 1970, after more HOLLIES sessions, Elton released the country-esque `Border Song’, which, when picked up by Uni Records in the States, broke him into US Top 100. The accompanying eponymous album ELTON JOHN {*7} – the first of many to be produced by Gus Dudgeon – reached the American Top 5 and the UK Top 20; Elton finally setting out on the road to superstardom that would see him become one of the most unlikely pop icons of the 70s. With the liltingly effectiveness of `Your Song’, the John-Taupin writing partnership also stepped up a gear, the chemistry obvious from the beginning, despite the latter’s often impenetrable lyrics and Paul Buckmaster’s grandiose orchestral arrangements – `Take Me To The Pilot’ included.
Later that year, Elton made his US stage debut (along with guitarist Caleb – yes, part of the same future clan as FINLEY QUAYE – and the rhythm section of Nigel Olsson and Dee Murray) at the Troubadour in L.A., giving the Americans a taste of the flamboyant showmanship which would become ever more OTT as the decade wore on and which subsequently resulted in the Liberace comparisons.
A relatively successful loose concept attempt at retro Americana, TUMBLEWEED CONNECTION (1970) {*9} was another major seller. Including the rustic beauty of `Country Comfort’ (later covered in memorable style by ROD STEWART), the Wild West was duly won over here, on this yearning and autumnal set. In the space of a year, Elton had went from promising nobody to a star is born, and songs such as `Ballad Of A Well-Known Gun’ (very The BAND), the LEON RUSSELL-esque `Talking Old Soldiers’, the beautiful `Come Down In Time’, `Where To Now St. Peter?’ (very JONI MITCHELL) and a take of LESLEY DUNCAN’s `Love Song’ were strange bedfellows; `Amoreena’ and `Burning Down The Mission’ drew down the shutters with aplomb.
Released for different labels almost simultaneously, Elton succumbed to over-popularity traits via two sets, the soundtrack to the rather low-key movie “FRIENDS” (1971) {*6} and the live 17-11-70 (1970) {*4}. Without any of his most recognisable hits, the latter concert was characterised by his odd interpretations of The ROLLING STONES’ `Honky Tonk Women’, plus Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup’s `My Baby Left Me’ and The BEATLES’ `Get Back’ planted/interpolated inside an 18-minute gospel-ish trail of `Burn Down The Mission’.
It was quite incredible Elton had any time for er… “Friends”, but he did have two in the shape of Taupin and Buckmaster, and it was mostly down to the hard work of the latter that this got off the ground (the former implied so in the sleevenotes). Straight from the opening hit single title track and follow-on number, `Michelle’s Song’, the album – which was recorded the previous September – has a nice easy-does-it, soft-rock approach, although the slightly uptempo `Can I Put You On’ and `Honey Roll’ put paid to that. After many years only issued on vinyl, the team at Polygram decided it was time for a re-release under the efforts of a “Rare Masters” double-CD complete with early Elton material.
Although follow-up proper, MADMAN ACROSS THE WATER (1971) {*7}, saw Buckmaster’s overbearing string arrangements come in for some critical flak, Elton swapping cinematic flourishes for a new prog-like approach exampled in `Indian Sunset’. The folky `Holiday Inn’ was overshadowed a couple of EJ classics, `Tiny Dancer’ and `Levon’; `Razor Face’ another beautiful character sketch.
With Davey Johnstone replacing Quaye and Elton’s best song-to-date `Rocket Man (I Think It’s Going To Be A Long, Long Time)’, HONKY CHATEAU (1972) {*7} was a more robust affair and his first Stateside chart-topper (No.2 in Old Blighty). It saw EJ begin to adopt the musical maverick approach which would characterise most of his 70s albums, while spawning the minor hit in the almost cheeky but irreverent, `Honky Cat’. On a more serious but upbeat cynical approach, `I Think I’m Going To Kill Myself’ was the piano player playing with fame and its pitfalls; LEON RUSSELL and DR. JOHN were major influences for `Susie (Dramas)’ and `Amy’, while another cat named `Hercules’ was almost, yes almost glam.
DON’T SHOOT ME I’M ONLY THE PIANO PLAYER (1973) {*7} consolidated his commercial appeal, a transatlantic No.1 which saw him flirting gamely with bubblegum pastiche-pop on `Crocodile Rock’ (his first US No.1 single) and adult balladry of AOR smash, `Daniel’. Recalling the bobby-sox contemporary days of 50s rock’n’roll, the record had an almost retrospective feel as Elton plodded through `Elderberry Wine’ and `I’m Gonna Be A Teenage Idol’; but for the out-of-place `Have Mercy On The Criminal’, this set might’ve sunk his rock credibility in one fell swoop.
The pinnacle of JOHN’s early career, however, came with GOODBYE YELLOW BRICK ROAD (1973) {*8}, a massive selling double set which saw the man’s chameleon-like talent embrace a dazzling, occasionally over ambitious, array of styles, from the musclebound piano smash ’n’ grab assault of `Saturday Night’s Alright For Fighting’, and the cloying high-pitched bombast of `Bennie And The Jets’, to his poignant Marilyn Monroe tribute, `Candle In The Wind’ and the classic title track. An album that had something for someone somewhere, it showed the prolific Elton and Bernie achieving universal acclaim as the searched for their own “Sgt. Pepper” at the end of the rainbow. Not noted for his prog prowess although he’d had delusions of grandiose grandeur a few years back, the record kicked off with the epic `Funeral For A Friend / Love Lies Bleeding’ journey, while a re-vamped `Grey Seal’ fitted better here than its previous B-side status. The same year, Elton did the obligatory rock star thing and formed his own label, Rocket; protégé KIKI DEE and all-round pop star NEIL SEDAKA being two of his more prominent signings. The glam Xmas 45 was in vogue at the time, and Elton was no shirker when `Step Into Christmas’ careered into the UK Top 30; SLADE, SWEET and MUD fared much better.
CARIBOU (1974) {*5} took Elton’s glitzy glam to new levels as opening chart-topping track `The Bitch Is Back’ revealed, while the balladeer was in fine fettle on classic pop song, `Don’t Let The Sun Go Down On Me’. However, most, but his most loyal and trusted fanbase, could tell him this was a bummer, or a `Stinker’ as track 8 would conclude. JOHN at least began working with JOHN LENNON the following year on the former Beatle’s comeback single, `Whatever Gets You Thru The Night’, while the connection secured two Elton John Band hits by way of `Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds’ and the funky mirror-balling `Philadelphia Freedom’.
1975’s CAPTAIN FANTASTIC AND THE BROWN DIRT COWBOY {*8} was a concept affair documenting the development of the John-Taupin partnership through the years, the soul baring `Someone Saved My Life Tonight’ ranking among the pair’s best. Opening with the country-rock-tinged title track and `Tower Of Babel’, Elton was back in favour with the critics; the pop-tastic `Bitter Fingers’, the schmaltzy `Writing’ and the quirky `Better Off Dead’ seeing Elton as Captain riding on the crest of his own wave.
More high profile was Elton’s increasingly outrageous stage garb, as witnessed via his cameo appearance – as the outlandishly attired Pinball Wizard – in Ken Russell’s film version of The WHO’s Tommy (sporting one of the rather more erm… exotic models from his famed sunglasses collection). JOHN would duly let go longstanding sidemen, Murray and Olsson, re-vamping his band prior to recording ROCK OF THE WESTIES (1975) {*5}, as it turned out his last No.1 album for almost fifteen years. A case of saturation or too much too soon, coming as it did only a matter of months after its fruitful predecessor, the Americans at least to the likes of the uptempo `Island Girl’ (another No.1) and `Grow Some Funk Of Your Own’; there was more substance in `I Feel like The Bullet (In The Gun Of Robert Ford)’ than any other songs here.
The latter half of the decade saw JOHN retire from performing, signing off from D.J.M. courtesy of a rather disappointing live document, HERE AND THERE (1976) {*4}. If one has to take a peak at the set, try the revised double-CD re-issue in 1995 which includes further examples of his try-outs with LENNON – `I Saw Her Standing There’ included.
1976’s lengthy double-set, BLUE MOVES {*6} marked the end of his partnership with Taupin, while JOHN subsequently busied himself with chairing his beloved Watford Football Club. Without the appearance of his biggest UK hit to date, the KIKI DEE duet `Don’t Go Breaking My Heart’ (his first for Rocket Records), and unfairly underrated by many critics, it was a complete departure from his previous overbearing “Westies” album, although it featured drummer Roger Pope, the returning Quaye, James Newton Howard (on keys and orchestral arrangements, bassist Kenny Passarelli, plus stalwarts Johnstone and percussionist Ray Cooper. Almost horizontal in ballads such as `Chameleon’ and the excellent hit, `Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word’, on the other end of the scale there was disco run-throughs `Crazy Water’ and `Bite Your Lip (Get Up And Dance!)’. Maybe on reflection, this would’ve made a good single set, and if Elton ever wanted to stray further into the jazz-rock/WEATHER REPORT territory as exampled on off-kilter instrumental `Out Of The Blue’, then another feather to his bow would’ve been added.
Though it spawned the Top 5 `Song For Guy’, the Gus Dudgeon-produced A SINGLE MAN (1978) {*4} was hardly a convincing return, as punk and the new wave buried Elton and most of his contemporaries – at least in critique terms. With Taupin’s deputy Gary Osborne as Elton’s newfound foil, there was least one other hit from the pack in `Part Time Love’; for some reason the Top 40 single `Ego’ was left out. While the similarly-fated `Are You Ready For Love’ (lifted from the Philly soul man’s Thom Bell’s disco collaborations) was also unceremoniously shelved from VICTIM OF LOVE (1979) {*3}, the turn of the decade was a bad time to be Elton. Produced (and mostly penned) by Pete Bellotte and his team, and including an awful cover of CHUCK BERRY’s classic `Johnny B. Goode’, it was time for a re-think of one’s career.
The early 80s marked a creative nadir as Elton fumbled his way through a series of confused albums and ill-advised musical experiments. 21 AT 33 (1980) {*5} marked a reunion of sorts with Taupin (plus his core 70s backers, Olsson, Murray and Johnstone), although Gary Osborne and TOM ROBINSON also had their respective say on a couple of songs each; JUDIE TZUKE co-penned closing song, `Give Me The Love’. The “2-4-6-8 factor” was responsible for two of the best on show here, `Sartorial Eloquence’ and `Never Gonna Fall In Love Again’, while Osborne was behind US Top 10 hit, `Little Jeannie’.
Signed to Geffen Records and finding he could work better splitting his time between both Taupin and Osborne, THE FOX (1981) {*4} – featuring leftovers from his previous effort – and JUMP UP! (1982) {*5} catapulted Elton in the wrong direction sales-wise (only Top 20 in the UK), although a couple of good songs from each filtered through in `Just Like Belgium’ and `Nobody Wins’, plus from the latter, `Blue Eyes’ (an all-too rare UK Top 10 entry for the time) and his LENNON tribute, `Empty Garden (Hey, Hey Johnny)’.
Only a full-blown reunion with Taupin halted the slide on 1983’s TOO LOW FOR ZERO {*7} with its defiant hit single, `I’m Still Standing’ (complete with MTV promo), `Kiss The Bride’ and Top 5 smash `I Guess That’s Why They Call It The Blues’. Just kept off the top spot in Britain, BREAKING HEARTS (1984) {*6} continued the renaissance with the insidiously catchy `Passengers’ and the cheesy but gorgeous `Sad Songs (Say So Much)’, Top 10 hits both. Nevertheless, like many of his contemporaries, JOHN was now a card-carrying member of the glossy, MOR brigade whose airbrushed, MTV sterility partly defined the 80s.
But as his music became smoother, his personal life was in turmoil; an ill-fated marriage to Renate Blauel, well documented cocaine/alcohol problems and throat surgery all gave the gutter press hours of speculative fun; Elton had the last laugh, however, when he successfully sued The Sun newspaper in October ‘88. In between times, studio albums ICE ON FIRE (1985) *5} and the disastrous LEATHER JACKETS (1986) {*3} had even the loyalist of fans questioning his judgement. While “Ice’s” schmaltzy cold-war ballad `Nikita’ reached the dizzy heights of the UK Top 3, his duets with GEORGE MICHAEL (`Wrap Her Up’) and soul-stress MILLIE JACKSON (`Act Of War’) peaked at No.12 and No.32 respectively. There was little to try for size in his dismal “Leather” set, while collaborations were rife via CLIFF RICHARD (`Slow Rivers’), co-conspirator CHER (`Don’t Trust That Woman’) and QUEEN’s Roger Taylor and John Deacon on `Angeline’. Keen to convince older fans he’d not totally lost the plot, the double-set LIVE IN AUSTRALIA (1987) {*5} – with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra and under the direction of movie composer James Newton Howard – took him out of the control of Geffen Records; a one-off minor hit (`Flames Of Paradise’) with Jennifer Rush was not included, although a beautiful UK Top 5 concert version of `Candle In The Wind’ was.
REG STRIKES BACK (1988) {*4} and chart-topper SLEEPING WITH THE PAST (1989) {*5} continued Elton and Bernie’s melody-driven charge, but neither set received appraisal from anyone but his yuppie-pop fanclub. Having joined the 40-somethings a few years back, “Sleeping…” at least counted a couple of minor hits (`Healing Hands’ and `Club At The End Of The Street’) plus his first UK solo chart-topper, `Sacrifice’.
Now very openly gay, JOHN increasingly devoted his time and money into AIDS care and research, founding the Elton John AIDS Foundation in 1992 and announcing that, from THE ONE (1992) {*6} album onwards, he’d donate all future royalties from singles sales. The set itself – featuring a meaningful Top 10 title track – found Elton (and Bernie) easing into a new decade; `Runaway Train’ (with ERIC CLAPTON), `The Last Song’ and `Simple Life’ giving him Top 50 consistency once again.
Xmas 1993 saw the release of the DUETS {*4} set, featuring Elton in collaborative tandem with everyone from TAMMY WYNETTE to LEONARD COHEN and MARCELLA DETROIT to CHRIS REA, while a suitably camp run through of `Don’t Go Breaking My Heart with transsexual diva RuPaul hit the UK Top 10; ironically shaded by his KIKI DEE Top 3 duet, `True Love’; a selection of golden nostalgia nuggets (too numerous to mention) were something of a mishmash, hotchpotch, disjointed affair.
Unusually for such a major league star, however, his involvement in the world of film, either as composer or actor, was pretty much non-existent until the hugely successful Walt Disney 1994 animation, The Lion King. JOHN composed the film’s score in tandem with lyricist Tim Rice, an achievement which earned them an Oscar for Best Original Song (`Can You Feel The Love Tonight’), and which they would expand upon for Julie Taymor’s subsequent Broadway production.
The bland Top 3 set MADE IN ENGLAND (1995) {*5} – with Elton donning new hair on the sleeve – was only the singer’s second set of new material in the 90s, its embarrassingly awful title track incredibly/unsurprisingly hitting the UK Top 20, while `Believe’, `Blessed’ and `Please’ secured the man more chart space. Reuniting once again with Johnstone, Cooper and arranger Buckmaster (not forgetting Taupin), maybe the Elton of old was fighting back.
However, by far the most high profile (and saddest) of Elton’s activities was his rendition of `Candle In The Wind’ at the funeral of Diana, Princess Of Wales; the single subsequently re-issued and a hysterical public pushing it to the top of the charts. Coincidentally, JOHN released his latest solo set, THE BIG PICTURE (1997) {*5} the following month, a transatlantic Top 10 which spawned a couple of major hits: `Live Like Horses’ (featuring Pavarotti) – from the previous Xmas – plus `Recover Your Soul’ and `If The River Can Bend’.
More successful was another high profile duet (with LeANN RIMES), `Written In The Stars’, a prelude to a whole album’s worth of coffee table bonhomie, ELTON JOHN AND TIM RICE’S AIDA (1999) {*4}. Credited with his “Lion King” collaborator Rice, the record boasted a “galaxy” of stars from STING, SHANIA TWAIN, JANET JACKSON, The SPICE GIRLS (Elton did a cameo on their “Spiceworld” movie), JAMES TAYLOR, etzzz…
Come the new millennium and after two diverse soundtrack works (THE MUSE (1999) {*5} and Disney’s THE ROAD TO EL DORADO (2000) {*6}), the ubiquitous Sir Elton decided to resurrect a raft of his old classics for ONE NIGHT ONLY – THE GREATEST HITS (2000) {*5}, treating paying guests in New York’s Madison Square Garden to a final, definitive rendering of the hits that made Elton the man he is today.
All this nostalgia seemed to rub off on him, inspiring a belated return to the rollicking, expansive musical sweep of his best 70s era recordings with SONGS FROM THE WEST COAST (2001) {*7}. Another record to secure a UK Top 3 position (only Top 20 in the US), the John-Taupin song-craft returned full circle as hit songs such as `I Want Love’, `This Train Don’t Stop There Anymore’ and `Original Sin’ suggested.
Having already performed a duet of `Stan’ with controversial rapper EMINEM (making up after a previous tete-a-tete at 2001’s Grammy awards, Elton continued his track record of collaborative smash hits in the varied company of Alessandro Safina (`Your Song’) and Blue (`Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word’), while a DJ-fied update of JOHN’s Philly-soul era track `Are You Ready For Love’, topped the UK charts in 2003.
The evergreen songsmith had clearly been keeping his best stuff for another back-to-basics critical fave, PEACHTREE ROAD (2004) {*7}, writing in collaboration with Taupin on a set which once again attracted comparisons with his piano-pounding early 70s works. Dedicated to his late, former producer Gus Dudgeon (Elton took on the task himself here), although sales didn’t match up to the record’s critical favour. Whether it was down his recent scurry of timespan/blue-eyed collaborations, or it fitted the mould of an old man sculpting songs amid the harsh dog-eat-dog shuffle of 21st century AOR, one could only surmise that creations such as `All That I’m Allowed (I’m Thankful)’ and `Turn The Lights Out When You Leave’ missed the point among the youth of the day. Incidentally, later copies added his UK Top 5 entry, `Electricity’.
At the same time as the man was on a revisionist trip, younger acts like SCISSOR SISTERS were exulting in their own unashamedly ELTON JOHN-influenced retro-camp. His next three collaborations were among his most newsworthy: an ill-advised Live8 duet with a regulation worse-for-wear PETE DOHERTY, a seriously incongruous chart-topping link-up with long-deceased gangsta rap legend 2PAC on `Ghetto Gospel’ and tying the knot with his long-time partner, David Furnish, on the 21st of December 2005.
The revisionism continued unabated through his “Captain Fantastic” sequel, THE CAPTAIN & THE KID (2006) {*6}, a worthy autobiographical attempt by authors JOHN and Taupin to recall the salad days of ’75. Tracks such as `Tinderbox’, `Wouldn’t Have It Any Other Way (NYC)’ and `I Must Have Lost It On The Wind’ certainly marked out the record as high value for his loyal fanbase.
Although there were annual collaboration hits with the likes of JOSS STONE (`Calling It Christmas’), The KILLERS (`Joseph, Better You Than Me’) and Ironik & Chipmunk’s UK Top 3 version of `Tiny Dancer’, the solo Elton was conspicuous by his absence while taking some deserved time off to set out another venture. As if to fortify his near-impressionist love of the legend that was boogie man maverick LEON RUSSELL, Elton (and producer T-Bone Burnett) rooted-out the piano player and invited his into the studio. After the pair hit it off, 14 songs made it on to the co-credited THE UNION (2010) {*6} set. Balanced by a few RUSSELL contributions and fresh works by the permutation of Elton, Bernie or Leon himself, the connection was one for the Jools Holland-minded musos; example `If It Wasn’t For Bad’, `A Dream Come True’ and `Hey Ahab’.
Ever ambitious and helpful to up and coming groups, Elton discovered his love of the music of PNAU, an Australian electro/dance duo (Nick Littlemore and Peter Mayes) who were more at home in the atmospherics of Ibiza. The pianist financed their fourth set `Soft Universe’ in 2011, while the man let them loose on his old tapes; the remixed and re-vamped mash-up `Sad’ (a Top 50 hit) was touted as an official London 2012 Olympic song. The accompanying collaborative mini-set, GOOD MORNING TO THE NIGHT {*6} duly made the grade and the UK top spot, as once again Elton was back.
Sir Elton was still standing, as was his stalwart lyricist Bernie Taupin, when studio album number thirty-one, the almost seamless and haunting THE DIVING BOARD (2013) {*7}, bounced him back up the charts and into the Top 5 on both sides of the Atlantic. Recalling the triumphant “Tumbleweed Connection” or “Madman Across The Water” (from more than four decades ago!), producer T-BONE BURNETT lets piano-man Elton map out Bernie’s words as if both “parties” were still on a big tour bus picking up names and places along the route. Touching and tapping into neo-classical-cum-blues on the spirited `The Ballad Of Blind Tom’ and `Oscar Wilde Gets Out’, or taking the nostalgic route on `Oceans Away’, the accentuated Elton still had it in spades – a man who could make a near empty room seem busy.
Safekeeping his main musketeers, Elton guaranteed himself transatlantic Top 10 status for 2016’s rootsy WONDERFUL CRAZY NIGHT {*6}. As much a celebration of half a century in showbiz, the glitz and glam might’ve been left to his colourful specs and suits; he was named as one GQ’s best dressed British men. Reflective and searching in his quest for another classic song, there was intimacy and candlelit sentimentality in `Blue Wonderful’, whilst the buoyant and hook-line `In The Name Of You’, `Claw Hammer’ and the title track, showed his construction and craft had not dissipated over the years.
© MC Strong 1994-2008/LCS/BG-GRD // rev-up June2012-Feb2016

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